Flora and Fauna in Fiction

Goddesses and Nature

Flora and fauna are two of my best friends. The two categories have always amused me because they sound like women’s names, and, in fact, are. Flora was originally the name of the Greek goddess of plants, flowers, and fertility. The internet lists about 75 famous (or notorious) women named Flora. The biological meaning refers to the types of plants found in a particular geographic region. Thus, the flora of Madagascar is so rare that more than 80 percent of the plants are found only on the island, including species of orchids, palms, and baobabs. The flora of Colorado includes native species as well, some of my favorite are kinnikinnick, blue columbines, and wood roses.

“Fauna” is much less popular as a name even though it too was the name of a goddess of fertility. When I checked naming sites for feminine names, Fauna was very unpopular. In fact, in 2017 it ranked a low 20,000 (with number one being most popular). It has moved up a bit, perhaps due to Fauna Hodel, the mystery writer. In Madagascar, the fauna is also unique—lemurs with their long tails, sometimes ringed in black and white, and their cousins the soft white sifakas—definitely evoke one’s curiosity. In Colorado, while most of our wild animals are common to the west, we do have a unique squirrel, a species of Abert, which looks like a little pointed ear black devil when it peers down from a pine tree.

Plants and Animals in Colorado

Despite my digression into the names of goddesses and the flora and fauna of Madagascar, my concern with plants and animals is how to depict them in my novels which take place in Colorado. Naturally, they can make a story resonate with an authentic sense of place, creating familiarity or exoticism, or even, in the case of fauns creating an imaginary world. Needless to say, to create verisimilitude, authors must be careful to represent flora and fauna accurately when necessary to describe a region. Even with the spread of species to new habitats, one must be careful because some plants and animals simply don’t occur in some regions. Moreover, the number and variety of plants and animals differ depending on the era one is describing.

I am currently writing about two very different areas of Colorado which keeps me on my toes. Fortunately, I have spent time in both. Having grown up in the mountains, I always feel slightly uneasy when I am in a geographically flat area such as Oklahoma. I feel as though I might fall off the earth. Both landscapes I am writing about are dramatic but in different ways. One is in the Foothills of the Front Range where the Rockies tumble down to crash in waves on the Great Plains. The other is more than 300 miles away in Northwestern Colorado near Dinosaur National Monument.

Flora of the Front Range

The Front Range flora tempers the harshness of the mountains. The winds that drop over the mountains ruffle the trees and grasses as they descend. I could simply describe Front Range Flora with color terms because they vary so much depending on the season of the year. But I could also focus on sound. Most importantly, for accuracy, I need to learn the names, at least the common names, of the plants that paint the canvas my characters inhabit.

Fauna of the Front Range

As for the fauna, I know most of the common names of the animals on the Front Range, although specific species elude me. The most visible wild animals on the Front Range have always been the hawks, vultures, and bats as they circle high in the sky at different times of the day. While walking or riding horses in the Foothills, I have often seen coyotes, bears, or deer, and on occasion a bobcat. At times I have seen foxes, raccoons, and rabbits play in my yard. And, most amusingly, a very large bear left a huge pile of “fertilizer” in my flower garden last summer which resulted in my flowers developing extraordinarily large blossoms. Moose and cougars are common nowadays in this area, they even occasionally walk right down our street, while during the time period I am writing about they simply were not around. In the past, I used to hike and jog on the trails alone and was never surprised by anything but a chipmunk.

North Western Colorado

The other landscape I am writing about is in the northwestern part of the state. During the early part of the twentieth century, it had meadows with tall grasses in the bottoms below the low dry mesas. But since the Great Depression, it has been an arid and rocky desert. The light there is so bright it hurts your eyes. Most of the mesas are light-colored—shifting only from white to grey to a pale yellow—and very dry. Even the bushes are dry and light grey with a hint of lavender most of the year. Dry creeks beds, surprisingly, are scattered with very colorful stones that have been washed down from the mountains in the distance. The parched surface is dotted with bits of skeletons—mostly sheep and other small critters. If I take a walk, I have to watch out for rattlers. Only after the springtime rains do the flowers appear.

These different landscapes with their different flora and fauna definitely call for different kinds of stories. As D.H. Lawrence wrote: “All creative art must rise out of a specific soil and flicker with a spirit of place.” Writing—like the flora and fauna it describes—grows and flourishes in a distinctive environment.

Writing Goals for 2019

This year my goals are to:

  1. Edit my first novel into a coherent manuscript by December 7, 2019. During the month of February, I have been reading about point of view and paying closer attention to the POV used in novels I have been reading.  I am finding that “editing” involves rewriting and experimenting. Thus, I have tried rewriting from a different point of view, just to see if the story flows better.
  2. Complete a draft of my second novel by December 7, 2019. I worked on the outline and characters for my second novel and discussed it with a kindred spirit. I reread my notes and began to sketch in some scenes.
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted on the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2019. Today is March 7, 2019. This is my third blog of 2019. Blogging about my writing process approximates having someone to talk to as I proceed. It helps me to think about different approaches and what I need to focus on to write solidly.
  4. Continue to develop a network of kindred spirits in the world of writing and publishing. This month I read a blog that is written by editors who edit for writers and others who serve as ghostwriters, as well as several blogs by members of the Rocky Mountain Fiction Writers group. Fortunately for me, the Boulder Writers Alliance offered a workshop, led by Caitlin Berve of Ignited Ink Writing, on point of view this month. During the workshop, Caitlin asked us to write. I took the opportunity to rethink a scene from a completely different point of view. It was a good exercise. It helped me see the scene better. My BWA writers’ groups have also developed into social groups during happy hours which is a very nice way to relax after a hard day of writing.

The Pleasure of Writing

Emotions on and off the Page

Emotions manifest in a dual sense in fiction. The characters emote, while readers empathize with or reject the passions expressed on the page as they read. Thus, emotion is a tool that writers must wield sagely at all times regardless of their genre. Roland Barthes, who wrote Le Plaisir du Texte (translated as The Pleasure of the Text), delineated the difference between what he called readerly and writerly texts. He explains that the former elicits pleasure for the reader because it is simply pleasant to read. The latter stimulates “juouissance” (intense pleasure) which in French means intense pleasure at the intellectual, moral, physical, or material levels. For example, reading gives the reader the pleasure of knowing and learning. Figuring out the meanings or understories of the text is satisfying to the reader. Reading the text may give the reader sensual pleasure. Or the book itself may give the reader the pleasure of possession. Thus, from Barthes’ analysis, the writerly text is more stimulating than is the readerly text because it operates at different levels. Something unexpected in a writerly text forces the reader to engage more deeply. Writers then are challenged to create an emotional tenor in their stories that grabs the reader’s attention while stimulating them to think or react sensually. The intensity may be experienced by the protagonists themselves or the emotional tenor of the story could be inherent in the plot or the genre of the novel itself.

Emotions in Different Genres

As I have thought about different genres, I realized they can be divided by the emotions they elicit. The major genres are mythology (awe), tragedy (grief), fantasy (wonder), mystery (intrigue), adventure (excitement), and science fiction (astonishment).

Myth

Because mythology is a sacred form that features gods and goddesses who engage in exemplary or sometimes terrifying deeds, the characters exhibit awe, fear, guilt, regret, power, anger, or human frailty. The reader’s experience tends to reflect the characters’ experience with the addition of a sense of injustice at humans’ defenselessness—imagine being raped by a swan!

Tragedy

Tragedies tell the tale of human suffering. The characters usually have a human flaw that begins their demise. They express strong emotions such as hatred, jealousy, lust, anger or in the case of Antigone, love for her brothers. Their readers experience horror at what happens, sadness at the death of the innocent, and repulsion directed at the villain.

Fantasy

In fantasy just about anything can happen because magic exists. The fantasy world is created rather than realistic. The emotions vary depending on the storyline. The characters experience love and hate, fear and joy, the excitement of adventure or the boredom of home. The fantasy novelist must be able to stimulate readers’ suspension of disbelief. For it to work, the readers must happily tumble, like Alice, into a setting with characters that are not real and a world that is not possible. The emotions the readers experience tend to reflect those of the characters, even as they remind themselves, “Well this isn’t really real.” In a good fantasy, the reader’s reading pleasure results from delight with the wonder of the fantasy world itself.

Mystery

Mysteries require that the author provide a hook to grab the reader’s attention. They also have to involve the reader actively in trying to solve the mystery, while throwing in misleading clues to throw the reader off track. The intrigue of mystery creates suspense. The reader must identify with the protagonist enough to be anxious or worried about what is going to happen, literally holding their breath as threats or dangers come to a climax. The reader must enjoy the same physical release as Sherlock when then the mystery is solved. Thus, the mystery seems to hold the elements of a writerly text in the ways that it engages the reader’s thought process, even though it might not engage literary critics in the same way.

Adventure

In novels that fit into the genre of adventure, the characters take action. They do things that normal folks don’t engage in; there are ups and downs. They experience some type of trauma but manage to survive. The characters’ emotions rise and fall in line with their adventures, moving from calm to excitement, from excitement to worry, from worry to terror, from terror to achievement, and finally relief.

I just read an adventure novel that falls into a new genre—climate fiction. In Watermelon Snow by Bill Liggett, the heroine is a woman scientist who discovers an unlikely occurrence high on a glacier. Because of the setting and the threats of global warming, exciting adventures and traumatic deaths occur. It seems to me that most adventures would fall under Barthes readerly texts label because they are a pleasant read. However, cli-fi definitely stimulates the reader to consider how to solve current climate issues so it may move into the writerly realm.

Science Fiction

As a genre, science fiction creates an unknown world in which all aspects of society—gender, roles, technology, biology, finance—operate differently than in our daily lives. However, in science fiction emotion tends to work similarly to other genres. The characters experience emotions in reaction to the world around them or as in Star Trek, some characters, Data, for example, do not experience or understand human emotions at all because they are robots or cyborgs or some type of alien. The reader experiences many emotions including astonishment, surprise, delight, disgust, horror, or even disbelief. I do think the attraction of science fiction, if it is well written, is related to Barthes discussion of the writerly text. It does make the reader think. It forces the reader to react. I recall reading Wool by Hugh Howey. It triggered an incredible range of emotions in me—most of which were on the dark emotional side. The situation in the story was horrifying, which brings me to the question of what does emotion have to do with plot.

Emotion and Plot

In Wool, I think the plot drove my emotions. People were trapped physically because they were unaware of the reality of their situation. Emotionally some characters were resigned; others rebelliously tried to get out. Their rebellion drives the plot while drawing the reader along. The plot creates a sense of claustrophobia in the reader, so the reader experiences deeply what the characters experience. Wool adds a whole new meaning to Kurt Vonnegut’s description of the “man in hole” plotline!

Clarifying the Genre of My Novel

Curiously, I am not intrigued by writing in any of the genres discussed above. Although I think any good read has a bit of each in it. The book I am working on seems to fall under the category of literary fiction, although I don’t know if I can achieve a literary complexity of writing. It is a modern Bildungsroman about a young woman coming into her own.

Based on my experience, I would add a third level to the discussion of emotions: the emotion of the writer as she writes. I read somewhere if the story makes the author cry when she writes it, it is likely to make the reader cry. What this means to me is that the story must above all have a sense of authenticity. The emotions that fill its pages must be unavoidable. The novelist really must do something besides stare at her own navel. The story must be engaging enough to stimulate the reader’s plaisir du texte.

As I edit my draft this year, that will be my challenge—to make sure that as a writer I infuse the text with authentic scenes, while drawing the reader into my characters’ lives. I want my readers to laugh, to cry, and to rise to the challenges that occur in their own lives as my main character does.

Writing Goals for 2019

This year my goals are to:

  1. Edit my first novel into a coherent manuscript by December 7, 2019. For the month of January, I had the delightful company of my daughter and grandson which kept me busy. I decided to continue reworking my outline to assure that the storyline unfolds without repetition or without skipping something important. I had to split a couple of chapters. I also deleted one unnecessary part. I woke up last night dreaming I was writing a new story which is a pretty good signal from my brain that I need to get back to my writing. I’m finding the pull between creativity and paying attention to the structure to be a challenge.
  2. Complete a draft of my second novel by December 7, 2019. I have the first draft of my outline done, but it has holes. I don’t have the complete flow of the story in mind so I feel a bit as though I am playing chess: moving the players around to see in which directions they can move.
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted on the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2019.  This is my second blog of 2019—typing that date still makes my heart stop. I cannot believe we are already 19 years into the 21st century. Blogging for me continues to be a learning experience. It also helps me keep tabs on my progress.
  4. Continue to develop a network of kindred spirits in the world of writing and publishing. My networking in 2018 was fruitful. I am now sitting on the Steering Committee of the Boulder Writers Alliance. My job is to help with programming and to give input into the strategic plan. I also joined a second BWA small group of writers who analyze a novel each month. It has already helped me analyze my own writing even though I have attended only two sessions.

 

Writing Style and Reading Audiences

Friendship and Writing

My doctoral dissertation looked at the correspondence between George Sand (Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin Dudevant) and Gustave Flaubert. Their letters were fascinating because despite their age difference (she was 17 years older than he) they communicated as equals. The letters are often humorous. Most deal with writing.

Sand was a prolific writer. She wrote more than 20,000 letters in her lifetime, 63 works of fiction, as well as a dozen plays. Her collected works total about 160 volumes. Flaubert authored around ten.

They met soon after Flaubert’s Madame Bovary was published. Sand read it. She was impressed. She sat down and wrote a laudatory article in support of the young writer. He was so grateful that he wrote to her, begging to meet her. Their meeting was the beginning of a life-long friendship. They visited each other’s estates. When they were together, they would sit by the fire discussing literature for the entire night. When they were apart, they wrote letters, leaving us with a wonderful view into the lives of two writerly friends.

Style and Writing Habits

Studying their work, I realized that Flaubert’s genius lay in his determination to portray accurately and realistically while integrating depth of sentiment and character. Sand’s genius resided in her understanding of social issues, her vivid imagination, and her fascination with natural history. She wrote fluently and eloquently, rarely crossing out a line of her handwritten manuscripts. Because she wrote to earn money, she published in the “feuilletons” or the weekly newspaper serials of the time. The literacy rate in France during their lifetime was 90% and the weekly serials were extremely popular. Flaubert, on the other hand, struggled, scratched out words and sentences, searched for the precise word, and spent years perfecting his work.

But if we look closely at their prose, it is clear that Flaubert understood how to pack a wallop. He does this by weaving all five senses into a single paragraph of description that ends with an action. For example, in a description of a kitchen in chapter 9 of Madame Bovary, the wall is damp (touch) and oozing (sight), the door is creaking (sound), the stove is steaming (smell), Emma is nibbling nuts (taste), and drawing on the tablecloth with her knife (action). He integrates sensations, emotions, thoughts, and action creating a lucid description that the reader can envision in his or her own mind’s eye.

Sand, on the other hand, tends to narrate her stories in long sentences as a sequence of discussions or a sequence of events rather than focusing on detailed description. Interestingly, Sand was a genius of the short, pithy sentences that become maxims and her statements are often quoted as such. Their differences in style attracted different readers and created different followers although they both enjoyed reading each other’s prose.

Targeting a Reading Audience

As I write, I always have these two authors in mind. Flaubert stated, “One never tires of what is well written, Style is life! It is the very blood of thought!”  Sand wrote with a social purpose because she hoped to have a positive impact on the lives of women and the poor, stating, “Art for art’s sake is an empty phrase. Art for the sake of truth, art for the sake of the good and the beautiful, that is the faith I am searching for.”

My own style is not yet definitive. I struggle to find the right tone and the right voice. I do believe that writing with an audience in mind is important. But I also want my work to be well written stylistically. I hope to eventually hit the right note as I progress with my editing this year.

Writing Goals for 2019

How exciting it is to be at the beginning of 2019! I like this number—two thousand nineteen has a nice ring to it. I am looking forward to a year of writing, attending events on writing, and learning more about writing and publishing. Having worked on my writing goals since January 2018, I am better attuned to my own process and progress. Over the holidays, I took a break, although I spent some time pondering how to approach my goals for the year 2019. After much thought, I have decided to maintain similar goals for 2019. I will continue to focus on my creative writing and do the research to support it. This year my goals are to:

  1. Edit my first novel into a coherent manuscript by the 7th of December 2019;
  2. Complete a draft of my second novel by the 7th of December 2019;
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted on the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2019; and
  4. Continue to develop a network of kindred spirits in the world of writing and publishing.

Happy New Year! May your year be filled with satisfying work!

Darkness or Light? That Is the Question!

Considering Darkness Versus Light in December

When I took a course in reading theater years ago, we read a critic whose hypothesis was that dark political times bring lighter theater pieces, while lighter, happier political times bring forth darker aesthetic work. While examples are necessary to illustrate this idea, it is a subject which has always fascinated me. December is the darkest month. Humans react by installing stars made up of many light bulbs on mountains, decorating trees in the park with colorful LEDs, and lighting their homes with scented candles. It has led me to reflect on the darkness or light that novelists choose to portray.

Utopian or Dystopian?

Theodor W. Adorno, who lived through the Nazi takeover of Germany, wrote that all art lives in a space somewhere between the utopian/aesthetic and the political/mimetic. It seems to me that most popular novels are about the latter, whether it be personally political as in individuals abusing individuals or publicly political about the abuse of power by one group against another. Many modern novels fall into this dystopian time-space continuum.  Such dystopian worldviews seem bald-faced to me in the sense that they are a compilation of everything horrible that can occur. I am not sure what they bring to the reader besides depression, despair, fear of the present, and dread of the future. Likewise, many award-winning books treat dark subjects. The characters suffer brutal torments. Sociopaths rule. Nothing ends well. I’d like to see a book award for novels that address more productive lives, although it might garner serious critique from The New York Times.

Depicting Life in Fiction

Perhaps because we are living through a dark political time, I am attempting to write a novel that is uplifting—not Utopian, but positive—rather than dystopian. I think readers need to be shown options for approaching their existential problems. We live in the real world. Most lives are normal, though they may be fraught with problems. Most people approach their lives from a workable position, even though a few give up. Some commit suicide; others attack innocent people. Some choose political activism; others decide to run for office. Some prefer to teach; others to write. Some wish to help; others become healers. As Mr. Rogers’ mother used to tell him, “Look for the helpers. You will always find people who are helping.”

Expressing Gratitude

This past year, I have encountered many helpers. My daughter, who is an excellent soundboard and editor, has been my first reader for my blog. I am grateful for her insights and corrections. The Boulder Writers Alliance speakers have been helpful as their discussions about their own experiences are encouraging to me as well as entertaining. This month, I had some serious help with my novel writing, not directly, but indirectly. Gary McBride leads a “forensics of writing” group for the Boulder Writers Alliance. His ability to dissect a novel is extraordinary. I want to write something he would have fun analyzing. Time to get back to work!

Update on My Goal Setting

The year 2018 has been a fascinating year personally, professionally, and as a citizen. It could be called the Year of the Shift. So much has altered this year. Earth tremors, hurricanes followed by floods, droughts that caused fires, even under-ocean volcanoes have changed the landscapes where many of us live. These earth changes have been reflected in global and national politics, finances, and displacements of people. All this has occurred, while I in my little writing room have been attempting to accomplish the four goals I set in January 2018:

  1. Focus on my creative writing and do the research to support it: Eleven months have passed, I am currently working on my twelfth month of writing. My creative focus has literally transformed my life. I have enjoyed doing the research necessary to write. It is as though I am finally figuring out what I can and cannot actually accomplish.
  2. Complete a draft novel by the seventh of December 2018, writing 30 pages per month: Today December 7, 2018, I should have a complete draft of my novel done. In fact, I have undershot my goal. Of the 24 chapters in my outline, five are still empty.  I am also short on my page count, although I have written 285 pages. I cannot beat myself up too much about this because at the request of my children I have also written 220 pages for “my personal story” on the StoryWorth program. Thus, while I originally planned to write 365 pages this year, in fact, I have written 505 pages. This gives me hope for the coming year when I plan to concentrate on finishing my novel.
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2018: Today, December 7, 2018, I am posting my twelfth blog. Writing a blog was a goal I had never dreamed of taking a shot at until this year, yet it has been extremely satisfying. The blog has supported my creative writing in ways I did not expect. In the past, I have never shared my in-progress work with anyone. I always just finished what I was doing, then presented it to the appropriate person. Also, one of my weaknesses is that I do not question enough. I am more likely to reflect, reflect, reflect, but not to question. Writing the blog has made me question what I am doing, what I want to say, even what is worth saying. Definitively, it has pushed me to focus on time, to write my pages regularly. Writing the blog makes me accountable to myself and my readers.
  4. Develop a network of kindred spirits who are willing to share their own goals, progress, and observations with me: In November, the Boulder Writers Alliance workshop speaker was Debra Jason, who spoke about the topics covered in her book, “Millionaire Marketing on a Shoestring Budget ™. Debra Jason is a career guide on LinkedIn. I chuckled to myself when she recommended writing a blog. When she asked if anyone was writing one, I talked a bit about mine. Suddenly there I was in a face to face situation sharing my goals, my progress, and my observations with other writers —an extension of my fourth goal!

Handling Dreams in Life and Fiction

Should Dreams Be Used as a Device in Fiction?

In an earlier blog, I talked a bit about journaling and writing down dreams as a way to stimulate your creativity and keep a log of your creative life. In this blog, I discuss the possibility of using dreams in my novel. At a workshop on writing fiction that I attended this fall, I was perplexed when the speaker said not to use dreams in a novel. Because dreams are definitely an essential experience of our lives, I find it hard to accept her statement. Every culture discusses dreams and the interpretation of dreams. In my home, dreams are often the topic of discussion over the breakfast table. My husband and I are both vivid and creative dreamers. As an artist, his visual and symbolic acuity make him a fantastic interpreter of mine. I like to use my dream book to interpret his. Novels are based on lives; living people dream. I think fictional characters should be able to dream as well.

Dreams as a Narrative Device

In “Dreams and Narrative” in Psychology Today, Patrick McNamara discusses the similarity between dreams and narratives. He states, “Most of us experience dreams as stories…or at least dream reports are very much like stories.” According to him, research on dreams reveals reoccurring content which reappears in multiple retellings of dreams. He also notes that neuroimaging of the brain during REM sleep suggests dreams are indeed “real experiences.” He sees dreams as social “communicative devices or signals whose target is the waking self or other members of the social group.” McNamara concludes by calling for more serious research on dreams and their social nature.

Dreams as Prophecy

Dreams can be interpreted in various ways. I did a count of dream interpretation books advertised online. At least 20 are published per year. Some see dreams as prophetic. I have, in fact, had prophetic dreams myself. I know this because I have kept a dream diary. For example, once I dreamed that I had to go to South Africa to take care of my brother. My brother did live in South Africa, but I had no intention of ever visiting him there. Several months later, my mother telephoned me. My brother was extremely ill. His partner had called her to tell her that my beloved brother was dying. Mother panicked. She begged me to go to Cape Town to take care of him. She felt vulnerable because she was terrified of flying and refused to get into an airplane. At first, I resisted because the trip would be long. I would miss too many days away from work. I would have to leave my daughter and husband. But because her helplessness was palpable, I went. While there I documented everything via photos, so she could see the whole environment. Her son, although normally 180 pounds but at that moment 120 pounds, was thin and weak, but alive. Happily, the situation ended on a positive note. My brother recovered. He is currently an active composer of music in Cape Town, almost 20 years later. Several years after my trip, I was rereading my journal and rediscovered my dream entry. It made me stop and think about the potential authenticity of premonition.

Dreams as a Connection to the Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung discussed the phenomenon of the collective unconscious, which I have experienced on multiple occasions. Back in the year 2000, I dreamed I was standing on a two-wheeled vehicle. I was moving down the street, maneuvering it with controls on the handlebars. It was propelling itself with some kind of motor. It was a marvelous ride. Waking up laughing, I grabbed my dream journal to record a drawing of the strange vehicle with an explanation of how it worked. I wanted one! Over breakfast, I recounted my dream to my husband, showing him my drawing. He responded, “It would make a handy-dandy vehicle to drive to work.” A year or so later a national company came out with what we all now recognize as the Segway—the embodiment of the means of transportation in my dream. Since I am a writer instead of an engineer, I missed the opportunity the universe was sending me to become an inventor. Someone else did not just laugh when they had their dream but rather turned it into a money-making project.

From Dream Life to Fiction

My own relationship with dreams has helped me to build a character whose dreams meld with her daily life. My protagonist is in transformation. She doesn’t know exactly where she is going. She is confused by whom she thinks she is. Strange experiences keep happening in her life. I have decided to handle some elements through the intrusion of dreams in her narrative. The dreams are at times a signal of something to come or at others a result of what has happened. They may even serve as what I am going to call a “plot motor.” They move things along. They suggest to the reader that another level of consciousness is occurring for my heroine.

Update on My Goal Setting

 This month I am restating specifically the goals I set in January 2018, followed by my monthly update.

  1. Focus on my creative writing and do the research to support it: Ten months have passed. I am learning by experience what an economist friend told me once, “Always plan for a three-month lag.” She was correct. The month of October has been a challenge. My husband, the artist Bill Border, was in Open Studios for three weekends. I served as a planner, advertiser, greeter, accountant. Then to make matters worse, I hurt my shoulder. I couldn’t type for more than a week. I have a friend who suggested using the dictation function on my computer to write, but I am definitely a hands-on thinker. Consequently, I am short of reaching my November 7thgoal for pages written.
  2. Complete a draft novel by the seventh of December 2018, writing 30 pages per month:  On November 7th, my page counter should stand at 334. Right now, it stands at 273—my goal for October 7th. As I was reviewing my chapters, I realized I had renamed and copied Chapter 4, but it was the same chapter as Chapter 3. Boom, I was down 20 pages. At first, I thought it was a disaster, then I realized I needed the empty chapter because I needed to build in some missing character development. The lack of this information was causing me problems as I tried to write later chapters. So, I sat down to write an entirely new chapter. It has helped. Things are starting to flow a bit better. At least I made it back up to my end goal for October. Now I am a full 31 pages behind.
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted on the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2018: Today, November 7, 2018, I am posting my eleventh blog. Blogging is beginning to feel like a friend. Recording my process regularly truly helps me sort through the reams of material on my desk. It also helps me verbalize my frustrations and challenges.
  4. Develop a network of kindred spirits who are willing to share their own goals, progress, and observations with me: This month I was unable to attend the Boulder Writers Alliance meeting because the workshop was during Open Studios. Nevertheless, I did host a dinner party with a novelist friend, Bill Liggett, who discussed his work and showed slides about the site of his climate-fiction novel, Watermelon Snow. Bill has asked me to write a review of his book. As a result, I now have before me an unexpected challenge because I have never written a book review on a novel. Since I am a novice at reading “cli-fi,” writing this review will force me to expand not only my writing skills but my reading canon, as book reviews require comparisons with similar works.

Creating Realistic Characters

Developing Your Characters’ Personalities

When I was a young counseling psychology student, I took an Abnormal Psychology course. During that time, I also worked as a teaching assistant in educational counseling and completed my internship at the university counseling center. In the process of developing characters for the novel I am drafting, I realized that the various models of personality I had studied might serve me well as a writer. While there are different models available, one I have enjoyed working with is Timothy Leary’s Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (New York: Ronald Press, 1957). There are various versions of his model online. I like the original because it has four poles. It also has eight levels of intensity that radiate out from the center point to the end of each axis.

Timothy Leary’s Interpersonal Behavior Circle

Timothy Leary, well known for his experimentation with LSD, was a respected psychologist who worked for Kaiser Permanente in California in the 1950s. His research team studied how pairs of individuals interact. It is an effective way to grasp different types of personalities, using a two-axis layout. The vertical axis runs from “dominant” at the top to “submissive” at the bottom. The horizontal axis runs from “Hate” on the left to “Love” on the right. If a person scores near the center their behavior is more normal. The higher the score from 1 to 8, the more extreme the behavior is.

Individuals who fall on the vertical poles fall on a continuum from Dominant (Managerial/Autocratic) to Submissive (Self-effacing/Masochistic). On the horizontal poles, the continuum extends from Cold (Aggressive/Sadistic) to Warm (Cooperative/Over Conventional).

Concentric circles are placed over the axes to indicate the levels of intensity of each personality starting at level 1, moving outward to level 8. Thus, a “Dominant” person who is at the level one intensity would, on the cold side, be “able to give orders” or, on the warm side, “be well thought of.” A “Cold” person on the dominant side would be “able to be strict if necessary” or on the submissive side would be able to “be frank and honest.” A “Warm” person who is at the level one intensity, would, on the dominant side, be “friendly;” on the submissive side, be “cooperative;” while a “Submissive” person on the cold side would be “able to criticize self;” or on the warm side “able to be obedient.”

At the highest level of intensity (8), a “Dominant” person on the cold side would be described as “dictatorial” or on the warm side by “everyone admires him/her.” A submissive person at level 8 would on the cold side be “Always ashamed of self” or on the warm side “Spineless”.

Thus, if you wanted to create a hyper-normal character who spoils everyone with kindness, you would be describing a level 8 Dominant/Warm character. If you wanted to put an aggressive/sadistic villain into action, you would use the level 7 of “frequently angry, self-seeking and impatient with others” combined with “hard-hearted, cruel and unkind” at the level 8 on the “Cold” axis.

Creating Complementary Characters

It is a terrific guide to understanding the varying intensities of personality. The scale also provides keywords at each level within each quadrant (Dominant-Hate) (Dominant-Warm) (Submissive-Hate) (Submissive-Warm) to help a writer describe different extremes of personalities accurately.

A person’s interaction on the extreme of any pole creates a counterpoint type of response from a person on the opposite pole. Thus, if one character communicates coldly/dominantly, Leary’s research shows that the other person involved in the interaction will predictably take a submissive stance to avoid conflict. It takes self-control to pull oneself out of this habitual behavior in real life, but it is possible. For example, if someone is coming from a cold dominant position, a knowledgeable person can choose to sit down, become submissive, then wait for a chance to become warm, dominant. When the cold dominant person fizzles out, stand up, and say warmly, “Would you like to sit down to talk about it?” In my experience, it works.

Thus, in fiction, if the writer wants the characters to end up in a fight, both characters must engage as cold dominant, escalating the argument. Or if the author wants a character to simply operate at a normal level, she can keep the characters’ interactions at a level one. This interplay can create believable characters, allowing the author to follow Leary’s roadmap from normalcy to nuttiness and back again.

Looking back on my years as a counseling student, the personalities of the counselors and their clients were fascinating. Using the lens of personality theory to figure out what was happening was helpful, even though the internship convinced me that I did not want to be a working counselor. Clients’ problems made me too sad. In retrospect, now that I am writing fiction, I find that my training in psychology is a valuable aid in character development.

Update on My Goal Setting

 This month I am going to restate specifically the goals I set in January, followed by my monthly update.

  1. Focus on my creative writing and do the research to support it: I have finished nine months of writing. Even though I am writing about an area in which I have lived for many years, it has taken detailed research to make sure I am not making errors. I have found that focusing on my goals helps me keep rowing upstream, rather than being swept down with the existential flood that often surrounds me.
  2. Complete a draft novel by the seventh of December 2018, writing 30 pages per month: On October 7th, my page counter should stand at 274. Right now, it stands at 255. I am still short by 18 pages which means I still have 110 pages to write before the end of the year.
  3. Document my progress through a blog to be posted on the seventh day of each month, writing 12 blogs in 2018: Today, October 7, 2018, I am posting my 10th blog. Blogging has been an educative adventure. It has forced me to write, read, and redo. It is a conversation with myself that allows me to connect with the world. An unexpected pleasure is that old friends have contacted me because they read my blog.
  1. Develop a network of kindred spirits who are willing to share their own goals, progress, and observations with me: This year I have been a regular attendee at the Boulder Writers Alliance meetings. In September I was asked to facilitate a workshop on goal setting for writers for the group. I was able to share my writing journey. Preparing for the workshop forced me to work on my goals for next year as well. Twelve writers of various levels of experience attended. Using my handout, they worked enthusiastically on their goals during the session. Comments following the session included, “This was a very professionally done workshop.” “Your worksheets clearly reflect years of research and experience.” “Your work has had an amazing snowball effect. My kids wanted to set their goals.” Continuing to expand my writer’s network, I also attended the Zee JFL Literary Festival Boulder. Over 70 writers gathered here to talk about their past, current, and future work. I listened. I absorbed. I asked a few questions. I made a couple of comments. I connected. I was humbled but enthralled.

Creative Time in Novels & Life

A day has 24 hours. A week has 168 hours. Months have an average of 732 hours. A year has 365 days or on a leap year 366 days. A year has 8760 hours—unless it is a leap year, then it has 8784 hours. A typical novel has between about 100,000 to 120,000 words in 300-400 pages.

How Many Pages Can I Write in a Year?

It depends on how much time I have at my disposal. It also depends on how many activities I can eliminate from my daily schedule. I have an acquaintance who has written 60 books in 10 years. My output is much less prodigious.

As I have stated earlier in this blog, my goal for 2018 is to write one approximately 365-page novel and to blog monthly about my process and progress. The page total for my monthly blogs will add an additional 50 pages to my writing output by the end of the year.

This combination fiction-non-fiction writing goal is helping me view my process from a bird on a branch perspective. I can see many sticks on the ground. Which ones do I need to build a functional little nest for my story? I also see many little seeds. Which ones will germinate into a compelling fictional narrative? Most importantly, how much time do I have to interlace my sticks and cultivate my seeds?

Concomitantly with my personal goals, and unbeknownst to me at the time, my children established a third writing goal for me that has forced me to increase my weekly page output. They gifted me with a subscription to StoryWorth on my birthday last year. Each Monday, StoryWorth sends me a question about my life which has to be answered and returned by the following Monday. At the end of the 12-month commitment, StoryWorth will produce a book made up of what I write and any photos I happen to include. I am currently answering the 41st question selected for me. This task has added an additional three to five pages per week to my production.

What Kinds of Writing Am I Doing?

Currently, I am doing three kinds of writing on a weekly basis: Fiction, blogging, and what I would call, rather than autobiography, a type of personal book report. The StoryWorth reporting style writing, done to a weekly deadline, has helped me focus narrowly on structure and editing because the story itself is simple to reconstruct—I lived it. The process has definitely sharpened my ability to see and fix my own errors. On the other hand, the fiction writing is opening up my creative flow. Unexpectedly, I also feel that it is opening up my heart. I am simply happier. Importantly the monthly blogging deadlines are forcing me to think metacognitively about my own writing process while forcing me to focus on the concrete goal of writing the number of pages I have committed to writing each month.

Time in a Novel Is Foundational

Goal setting to guide my writing has made me experience time as a living presence in my life. A presence that looms as well as a presence that seems to slip away faster and faster each week. My experience of time has made me wonder how I should use time in my novel. Should it press on my characters as it has on me this year? Should the story flow at a chronological pace? Or might it shift between time periods? Or will time become an actual protagonist in my story as it did in Dickens’ A Christmas Carol—where time manifests as the Ghost of Christmas Past, the Ghost of Christmas Present, and the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come?

How Will I Represent Time?

Shall it be as dramatic as a ghost or simply viewed through seasons, months, or years that pass by for my characters? Shall I start the headings for chapters with dates or simply work time into the story more subtly? Recently, I read Anthony Doerr’s, All the Light We Cannot See, a novel that skips back and forth over many years. At the head of each chapter appears a date. As a reader I found myself checking back to the date headings to determine how what had just happened or what had happened years before fit into what I was reading at the moment. Because of his chosen time format, Doerr’s date headings were a useful reading guide.

I also just read A Day in the Life of Denis Ivanovich by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. The book encompasses a single day—from morning until bedtime—of his life in a Russian gulag. The reader trudges through the frigid landscape and poorly heated buildings along with the main character, experiencing the exhausting, cold day viscerally. Two very different approaches. Two very different styles. Now I have to figure out my own “timepoint,” to coin a new meaning for a rarely used word.

Defining a “Timepoint”

Concepts of time shift dramatically across cultures, yet they impact our daily lives and habits. In the West, we see time as the sun rising, then passing from East to West, experiencing time on a daily calendar. Our experience of time is based on a yearly solar calendar that requires the allowance of a leap year every four years because a day is not exactly 24 hours. Human concepts have had to adjust to the idiosyncrasies of planetary time. When the West moved from the Roman calendar to the Gregorian, it resulted in strange occurrences, for example, the Roman “November” is no longer the ninth month, but the eleventh. It fascinates me that the meaning of the names of the months was forgotten or ignored by the creators of our calendar. It also made me realize that our general approach to time has an element of fiction, the suspension of disbelief. A sidereal day is really 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.0905 seconds.

Other cultures operate on the lunar calendar. A novel set with lunar time could have many evening scenes. It might also use metaphors that relate to the moon. A novel set in solar time might focus on night or day scenes, creating a more realistic mood. Perhaps a novel that used the image of sidereal time, focusing on the earth’s rotation relative to fixed stars, would allow for a more scientific or a more poetic use of time.

Which approach to time will I choose?

Update on My Goal Setting

I have finished eight months of writing. The challenge of keeping to a schedule is beginning to feel invigorating.

  1. I have been able to write fairly regularly working on my novel, my blog, and, additionally, a StoryWorth document. I am now into my ninth month.
  2. . Since August 7, 2018, I have made significant progress on my novel. This month I had to devote some time to coordinating my organization. I checked my chapter outline against my page count outline and against my actual chapters. Organizing large amounts of material is tedious, but necessary. I felt good about the reorganization. The story is starting to take on a life.  On September 7th, my page counter should stand at 243. Right now, it stands at 225.
  3. Today, September 7, 2018, I am posting my ninth blog. Blogging about my writing has highlighted the parallels between my life and my fiction writing. Not in the sense of story but rather in the sense of organizational and sensorial parallels.
  4. I have continued to build my writing network. In August, my Boulder Writers Alliance hosted a talk with Paul Cohen, the author of The Glamshack. Cohen read a short section from his novel. It was fascinating to hear the author’s voice interpreting his own text. Brad Wetzler’s interview with Paul Cohen brought out surprising comments. He was honest about his struggles. I particularly liked the anecdotes he told about working with agents and editors.